Chlorine residuals in Flint: Continued improvements

Flint residents have been asking, “Since the automated flushing stopped in November, have chlorine levels dropped because the water is not moving through the system as quickly?” 

The expectation is “No.”  Cold weather improves nearly all aspects of water quality, because lower temperatures reduce corrosion rates, slow bacteria growth, and stabilize chlorine disinfectant levels in water. On the basis of our experience with dozens of water systems in cold northern states, chlorine residuals tend to be highest in the winter and bacteria levels lowest.

To examine this question for Flint we provide two datasets.

The first is my own chlorine data collected at 3 am from my home away from home in Flint (i.e., LeeAnne Walters’ house).  Yes, I also take baths in Flint water while I am there — thankfully I have never had a problem with the rashes that afflict some residents. This house has one of the worst problems getting a chlorine residual that I have ever seen.  In summer 2015 to spring 2016, we could not get any detectable chlorine in this house, even if I ran the water continuously (Figure 1).  But in August 2016 (with flushing), or January 18, 2017 (without flushing), chlorine levels were in a satisfactory range, especially considering that the data is from a 3 am sample.  In our experience, 3 am is the worst case because that is the time of least water use across a city. This house had an automated flusher right next to it in August 2016, so it would be expected to show amongst the greatest differences with and without flushing.

Figure 1. Free chlorine at Flint house at 3 am. (Note: For the Feb 2016, chlorine was non-detectable at both midnight and 6 am, and was therefore assumed to be zero at 3 am).

Heterotrophic aerobic bacteria levels have also plummeted at this house.  The recent levels in August 2016 and January 2017 were undetectable to ≈ 500 cfu/mL, compared to the very high levels we found in August 2015 of ≈ 500,000 cfu/mL or moderately high levels in February 2016 of ≈ 7,000 cfu/mL.

The second set of data was collected by EPA from all of their standard distribution system monitoring sites located around Flint, and they were kind enough to share it with me. I made a histogram graph (Figure 2) to compare a hot month (Aug 2016) with the automated flushing on (red line) versus early December 2016 after flushing had been turned off for several weeks.  Put simply, the recent data from December shows much higher chlorine without flushing, compared to chlorine residual data from August with automated flushing. The average chlorine has increased from 0.83 mg/L in August 2016 (with automated flushing) to 1.3 mg/L in December 2016 (without automated flushing). The key reason is that temperature dropped from 23 down to 12° C.  Because temperatures have been getting even colder since,  things should continue to improve.


Figure 2. Free chlorine monitoring data from the Flint water system in August 2016 (n = 161) with automated flushing, compared to December 2016 (Dec 1-20) when automated flushing was turned off (n = 54). Chlorine levels are much higher in cold weather, even when automated flushing is turned off.

The EPA and the State will keep monitoring the situation closely. Bacteria levels were dramatically improved in Summer 2016 versus Summer 2015 based on our monitoring. If automated flushing is adopted again in summer 2017, even more improvements in chlorine and bacteria levels are possible.

In Flint MI and elsewhere, the “good news” that higher chlorine brings in terms of controlling potentially harmful bacteria, also brings “bad news” in the form of aesthetic problems.  Chlorine can irritate skin and smells like….well, chlorine. Given the trends in data above, Flint residents now perceive that chlorine levels are higher than they have been historically. That is not just a perception– that is a reality.  In general, chlorine in Flint, has historically been lower than is desired, and also lower than is common in many other cities. Now that chlorine levels are returning to levels considered normal and desirable for bacteria control, Flint residents are noting the change.

What can be done to reduce the irritation due to chlorine, which is one of the most common consumer complaints about drinking water nationally? The state provided lead filters do remove chlorine taste from the water which is used for cooking or drinking. If the chlorine is causing irritation in the shower, inexpensive shower filters do exist that can help although we do not officially recommend such filters, because they could potentially grow some harmful bacteria in a shower device designed to create aerosols that could increase human health risks. We consider purchase of such shower filters to be a personal choice.  Whole house filters can also remove chlorine, but this potentially allows harmful bacteria to grow throughout the entire volume of the building plumbing system.

Primary Author: Dr. Marc Edwards

Acknowledgements: Siddhartha Roy

Rep. Stephanie Chang (District 6) Raises Issues of Water Affordability in Detroit and Flint


Wednesday, Oct. 19, 2016

Contact: Rep. Stephanie Chang

Phone: (517) 373-0823


Statement for state Rep. Stephanie Chang (D-Detroit) on the report from the Joint Select Committee on the Flint water public health emergency:

“I am glad to see the Report of the Joint Select Committee on the Flint Water Emergency release its report and recommendations today and applaud the hard work of the committee members on such important topics. The Flint water crisis and water crises across the state continue and we need to take all necessary steps to address them.

“I am glad that citizen oversight at the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) was highlighted as a next step. However, I believe that any citizen oversight commission that is instated should include many of the provisions included in House Bill 5404, 5405, and 5406 that make sure these bodies have the strongest available tools to protect public health, such as the revocation and revision of permits, and other abilities to take enforcement and investigative actions. I also believe we need to make sure that a variety of voices are represented on these commissions, including members of the public and representatives of local governments and environmental leaders.

“Also, water affordability and shutoffs must be more comprehensively addressed. I have the honor of serving on the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) local government advisory committee and we have submitted recommendations to the EPA administrator for the national drinking water action plan that is expected before the end of the year. I was far from alone in bringing forward the topic of affordability. Many other local government officials in rural, suburban, and urban areas of the country expressed that water affordability is a major issue that must be addressed. When cities like Detroit are shutting off water to tens of thousands of residents or proposing to begin shutoffs in Flint simply because some residents are unable to afford their water bills, it is a human rights and public health concern. House Bills 5097and 5122 would address water affordability and institute shutoff protections and should have been included in the joint committee report. Nationally, there is a recognition that affordability is a priority, so it is extremely disappointing that our state has failed to recognize it as such when it impacts so many of our vulnerable residents.

“Long before the Flint Water Crisis was acknowledged, I began working with what grew into a bi-partisan workgroup of legislators and stakeholders, including Representatives LaTanya Garrett (D-Detroit), Sheldon Neeley (D-Detroit), Phil Phelps (D-Flint), Edward Canfield (R-Sebewaing) and the late Rep. Julie Plawecki and we developed these bills as part of our “Water as a Human Right” bill package. Our water workgroup will be following this issue very closely and hope that all issues are addressed fully.”


Overwhelming Support for FlintWaterStudy’s stand against the ES&T Editorial

We want to thank the 100+ colleagues who have directly communicated support for our belief, that professors must not be bystanders if they witness an environmental crime, especially when a vulnerable population is being harmed. Our motivations and actions to help expose the Flint Water Crisis were called out by the new editorial in ES&T Crossing the Imaginary Line.

As exemplified by the letter below, the overwhelming consensus is that:

“The researchers at VaTech have done exactly the right thing: morally, ethically, and professionally.  They took brave action not to be Hollywood heroes but because it was their responsibility as engineers to society.”

Even accounting for a selection bias, it is clear that the Editor-in-Chief of ES&T did not obtain the “full support of our community” before Crossing the Line and writing his regrettable critique.

Exemplary letter of support from Dr. Patricia Maurice at the University of Notre Dame:

Download (PDF, 32KB)